A Beginners Guide Trading Cryptocurrency
Everything You Need to Know to Start Trading Cryptocurrencies Like Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ethereum
From there it is as simple as getting verified with the exchange you pick and funding your account. Then, once you are verified and have your account funded, the only thing left to do is fill out some order forms to place trades.
In other words, if you want to trade cryptocurrency you need:
- A cryptocurrency wallet (or two). For example Atomic Wallet, Trezor, or even the wallets offered on exchanges (for short term storage).
- A cryptocurrency exchange (or two) to trade on. For example Coinbase, Bittrex, and Kraken.
The next step is understanding what you can trade:
- You can trade dollars to crypto (for example US dollars to Bitcoin or US dollars to Ripple).
- You can trade crypto to crypto (for example Bitcoin to Ethereum or Ethereum to Litecoin).
One solution for all the above is Coinbase/Coinbase Pro.
Coinbase is a good choice because it acts as a wallet and exchange and place to trade dollars for crypto and crypto to crypto. In other words, Coinbase is an all-in-one solution!
With that said, Coinbase has a limited amount of “altcoins” (Bitcoin alternatives like Ethereum, Ripple, and Litecoin), and thus many traders also use popular crypto to crypto exchanges like Binance, Bittrex, Kraken, and Poloniex to access a wider array of crypto assets.
So for example a trader or investor may buy Bitcoin on Coinbase using USD, and then send their coins to Bittrex to trade Bitcoin for other cryptos.
With the above covered, not every trader / investor is going to want to or be able to deal with cryptocurrencies directly, luckily there are some indirect options as well. These include:
- An app like Square’s Cash App or Robinhood (these are custodial services, and in the case of Robinhood won’t let you transfer crypto in or out).
- The GBTC trust and ETCG trust as sold on the stock market.
- A cryptocurrency IRA (these have drawbacks like fees, but they can be valid choices for long term investing).
Each option has its pros and cons, but notably, only an exchange-broker-wallet hybrid like Coinbase/Coinbase Pro allows one to trade, invest, store, send, and receive coins directly using a single platform.
Given the above, this page will focus on getting you started with Coinbase due to its ease of use for beginners and due to its usefulness for advanced users too.
GEOBLOCKING IN 2019: Starting in 2019 may exchanges began to “geoblock” US customers. In some cases, like with Bittrex and Poloniex, US customers are just barred from trading some specific coins. In other cases, like with BitMEX and Binance starting in September 2019, US customers can’t use the platform to trade at all.
NOTE: Coinbase Pro used to be known as GDAX.
TIP: A cryptocurrency wallet is a place where you store encrypted passwords that represent the ownership of coins (roughly the equivalent to storing money in a bank account). A cryptocurrency exchange is like a stock exchange or like a currency exchange in a foreign airport (a place people can trade cryptocurrency for other cryptocurrencies and fiat currencies like the US dollar). Just like if you want to trade stocks you need a bank account and access to the stock exchange, it is the same deal with cryptocurrency. To trade cryptocurrency, you need a wallet and a cryptocurrency exchange.
What You Should Know Before You Start Trading Cryptocurrency
There are only a few things to know about trading cryptocurrency beyond what was noted above. Below are a few of the most important things to know before getting started:
- The cryptocurrency market is insanely volatile. You can make a fortune in a moment and lose it in the next whether you trade Bitcoin, another coin, or the GBTC Bitcoin trust. Consider mitigating risks, hedging, and not “going long” with all your investable funds. TIP: If you trade only the top coins by market cap (that is coins like Bitcoin and Ethereum), or GBTC, then the chances of losing everything overnight are slim (not impossible, but slim). Other cryptocurrencies are riskier (but can offer quick gains on a good day). In general, coins with lower market caps and volumes tend to offer a greater risk / reward.
- A cryptocurrency exchange is not part of the regular stock exchange. Below we will suggest using an exchange/broker Coinbase, but you can also use the related Coinbase Pro (the pro version of Coinbase with lower fees) once you sign up for a Coinbase account. Neither of these is the same as Wall Street and its exchanges (same general mechanics, different specifics, and different entities).
- A beginner might prefer to trade cryptocurrency stocks on the stock market. For example, GBTC is a trust that owns Bitcoin and sells shares of it. Trading GBTC avoids you having to trade cryptocurrency directly, but still allows you exposure to Bitcoin. Beyond GBTC (and the Ethereum Classic version ETCG), your options are very limited for crypto stocks. Be aware that GBTC often trades at a premium (meaning bitcoins are cheaper than buying shares of the GBTC trust), which isn’t ideal. Also, cryptocurrency trading is a 24-hour market, where the traditional stock market is not. Learn more about the GBTC Bitcoin Trust and the related pros and cons before you invest.
- A beginner might prefer to use the Square Cash App or Robinhood. The Square Cash App lets you buy/sell Bitcoin, but it doesn’t net you Bitcoin you can send to an outside wallet. In words, you get exposure to Bitcoin without having to fully learn about crypto wallets and exchanges. It is simple, so it is a decent starting point. Robinhood essentially functions like Square at the moment, but they offer a larger selection of coins than Square and plan to allow transfers in the future. That said, Robinhood isn’t an option in all states.
- For those who want the real cryptocurrency experience, I think the simplest place to buy, sell, and store coins in the US is Coinbase (and our tutorial below will help you get set up with that), but you can only buy, sell, and store Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Bitcoin Cash, and a small (but growing) selection of other coins on Coinbase. However, if you are serious about trading cryptocurrency, and want access to all the coins crypto has to offer, you’ll want to also sign up for other platform that allow you to buy/sell crypto like Coinbase Wallet, Bittrex, Binance, or Kraken (and may want to find other solutions for wallets to store your coins in like TREZOR). See our list of exchanges for beginners for a more complete list of options. TIP: Even if you are going to get fancy with wallets and exchanges, Coinbase is a good starting point because it works as a simple on-ramp / off-ramp for fiat (i.e. you can easily trade dollars for cryptos on Coinbase, and this is not true of most exchanges).
In other words, although things can be as simple as grab Coinbase, Binance, and a TREZOR, or just click some buttons on the Cash App, the reality is beginners have a range of choices for how they want to approach crypto! Cool thing is, you can try them all.
TIP: There are a few sides to cryptocurrency. 1. you can trade and invest in it, 2. you can use it for transactions (anywhere a coin type is accepted), 3. you can break out a graphics processing unit and some software and mine coins (see how to mine coins), 4. you can develop for it, etc. All those and more are valid and interesting ways to interact with the crypto space, but with that in mind, this page is focused on “trading” cryptocurrency (and therefore also investing in it). With that said, even if you want to do the other things with cryptocurrencies, you still need to be set up for trading (as for example most miners will sell at least some of the coins they mine and developers will need to fund their operations).
On cryptocurrency mining: As noted, one way to invest in cryptocurrency is via cryptocurrency mining. That is a valid way to start investing if say you love computer gaming and need a new rig and want to invest in small amounts of cryptocurrency while maybe making back some of the cost of the rig (and maybe even breaking even) but that is an entirely different subject. The average investor will want to trade USD for cryptocurrency on an exchange and avoid the complexities and investments of mining. In all cases, unless you already have a good rig with a great graphics card, you’ll need to put down USD upfront anyway.
What You Need to Know to Start Trading Cryptocurrency
For those who want to trade actual cryptocurrency with the above notes in mind (in other words, you aren’t going to go with Cash App or GBTC for example). Then this is our suggestion:
- A beginner should start by choosing a company with a good reputation that offers an exchange and wallet (to help keep the process simple).
- A beginner should also start by trading prominent coins. Currently, in 2019, we are referring to coins like Bitcoin (BTC) and Ethereum (ETH). In the future, this could change.
Since the above is the case, a good start for anyone wishing to trade cryptocurrency is starting with Coinbase.com (the most popular cryptocurrency website in the United States, and a service that offers a single platform for a Bitcoin wallet, Ethereum wallet, Litecoin wallet, Bitcoin Cash wallet, etc and a currency exchange).
After you master Coinbase, then you are ready for say Coinbase Pro and other exchanges like Bittrex, Binance, or Kraken.
TIP: A good first foray into cryptocurrency investing is the obvious, buying a major cryptocurrency like Bitcoin. After that, you’ll probably want to trade USD for crypto on an exchange like Coinbase Pro. Once you have done that, you could try trading BTC and ETH for other cryptocurrencies. Trading “crypto pairs” can be rewarding, but it is more complex and often more risky than just buying a single cryptocurrency as an investment. In other words, start by trading dollars for major coins like BTC and ETH on an exchange like Coinbase, and then when you are ready try trading BTC and ETH for other coins on an exchange like Binance.
TIP: Do not do “margin trading” unless you know exactly what that is and are an expert. Cryptocurrency is volatile; you can end up losing all your money in an instant if you aren’t careful.
TIP: If you don’t understand the tax implications of trading cryptocurrency tread very carefully. There are some nasty traps you could fall into when trading coins. For one, they are not necessarily considered “like-kind assets.” If that is confusing, then consider sticking with trading USD for coins in Coinbase until you grasp the concept. Learn about cryptocurrency and taxes.
How to Get Started Trading Cryptocurrency With Coinbase.com
The process for beginning to trade cryptocurrencies is simple, but there are a few notes that are vital to your understanding. These are similar to the ones above, but this time they are applied to using Coinbase.
First, to sign up for coinbase.com.
- Sign up for Coinbase.com to create a digital currency wallet where you can securely store digital currency.
- Connect your bank account, debit card, and/or credit card so that you can exchange digital currency into and out of your local currency (you’ll probably also want to add optional info and upload your ID to expand your purchasing limit).
- Buy Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin, etc (trading dollars for cryptocurrency).
- Sell Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin, etc (trading cryptocurrency for dollars).
- Consider signing up for another exchange and trading cryptocurrency for cryptocurrency (and then transferring that back into Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum, and Litecoin, and then back into Coinbase, and then back into USD). Don’t forget to record your transactions for the tax man and to brush up on the tax implications (I can’t stress that enough).
NOTE: If you want to use Coinbase Pro, do steps 1 and 2, but then for step 3 fund your account with dollars or USDC and then move your funds over to Coinbase Pro to trade.
TIP: Coinbase accepts some non-US currencies as payment, but options may be limited. See Payment Methods on Coinbase.com for more information.
TIP: Coinbase is constantly expanding their offerings, check out a list of what cryptos Coinbase plans to offer.
Important notes for buying, selling, storing, and sending cryptocurrency using Coinbase:
- FIRST AND FOREMOST: USE TWO FACTOR AUTHENTICATION AND A STRONG PASSWORD. MAKE SURE TO ENABLE ALL SECURITY FEATURES IN COINBASE. Coinbase/Coinbase Pro is insured, but not against your account getting hacked, just against something happening on their side.
- To increase your buying / selling limits, input all forms of payment possible. Please note, only some banks are supported. Yours might not be. Please note that fees are lower with a bank account, and fees are rather high without one. Given that, you should use your bank account to purchase cryptocurrency directly via Coinbase over other payment methods whenever possible.
- When you sign in with your bank account, you’ll need to input your bank account login. That may feel shady, but is the process (read about it at Coinbase).
- If you use your bank account, you have to wait 3-5 days for your bank to approve the pairing (so you can’t trade for about a week after you sign up).
- There are limits to how much you can buy or sell in a week. Adding a photo ID and other payment methods will increase your limits. Otherwise your limits increase (quickly) over time as you trade.
- Coinbase now has instant purchase when you buy with your bank account. CAVEAT: Not all Coinbase accounts have instant purchase. Many do at this point, but not all do.
- There are fees involved with buying from Coinbase and some types of trading on Coinbase Pro (which can in cases get lower as you buy / trade more). Other exchanges have better rates than Coinbase (for example Coinbase Pro itself has better rates). However, rarely do exchanges have a better fee schedule than Coinbase Pro. In other words, when using Coinbase specifically, you’ll pay a little bit more than market price (or sell for a bit less than market price) and pay a small fee when trading on Coinbase (this is a trade-off for ease of use). NOTES: To be clear, there are essentially two sets of fees when you buy with Coinbase. One is them charging you more per coin than on Coinbase Pro or other exchanges; the other is an actual fee (currently paid in crypto, not USD, so if you buy 1 Ether, you get a little less than 1 Ether but pay the market price). That is the price you pay for them doing all the work and taking the risk of the price changing quickly when you buy. Not a reason not to use Coinbase and only use Coinbase Pro every time, but it is something to keep in the back of your mind if you start making lots of buys.
- Today you can use USDC (a stable coin) in place of the dollar on Coinbase in some instances. Although this is mostly something to keep in mind for trading on Coinbase Pro, it is important to note here given that you can buy USDC without a fee directly on Coinbase (and swap between dollars and USDC for free at any time). On some trading pairs you have to use USDC, on others you can’t. Try buying USDC with your bank account and then swapping between USDC and USD as needed. The benefit of buying USDC and USD on Coinbase is that it has no fees (as opposed to buying cryptos directly through Coinbase.Com, which can result in fees and premiums).
- To trade coins, you need to go into settings and make sure your wallets are set up (each coin has a wallet; wallets can be found under “accounts”).
- The benefit of a USD wallet on Coinbase is that you can put money in that and then, once the deposit clears, use it to buy coins immediately moving forward. If you try to buy directly with your bank account, the transaction can take about a week. Given this it is smart to fund your USD wallet or buy USDC and then use that moving forward to buy crypto. You’ll still need to wait for the deposit to clear, but once it is cleared with your bank you can use the funds. You can buy coins on Coinbase.com via your USD wallet (just toggle to USD wallet instead of bank account when making a purchase), although you’ll still pay the broker fee, and you can buy coins on Coinbase Pro using USD or USDC for low or no fees (remember, no fees for limit orders, low fees for market orders).
- You don’t have to buy a whole coin. You can buy fractions of coins. Whole Bitcoins can be expensive these days, so consider buying fractions of a coin to start if you don’t have a big bankroll. It has historically been a mistake to buy only other cryptos because BTC costs more. You need to think of which one will increase in and retain value, buying all three in equal $ amounts (and ignoring how many of each coin that amounts too) is one way to avoid making the wrong choice based on price tag per coin.
- When you buy a coin, take a breath and review the information. An extra decimal place can mean big money considering a single Bitcoin can trade for over $4,000.
- Sending cryptocurrency to other users is easy with Coinbase. You can send to the email address of another Coinbase user, or you can send to an outside address. Just make sure to review the information carefully. You can’t reverse a transaction if you send to the wrong crypto address!
- Download the app. This lets you trade cryptocurrency from your phone. The market is volatile; transactions are slow. When it is time to buy or sell, you need to do it ASAP.
- Set alerts. Alerts can help you decide when to buy or sell.
- There is a feature that lets you buy incrementally over time. Averaging in a position on a weekly basis is a solid conservative move that Coinbase will automate for you.
- Cryptocurrency is volatile! There is always the chance that the market will crash, or that you will face some other catastrophe. Cryptocurrency isn’t a centrally controlled and regulated fiat currency. If you lose a coin or someone cheats you, there is nothing you can do about it (which is why you want to have 2-factor authentication set-up).
In other words, trading cryptocurrency is simple to start, but there are some essential aspects to understand before you start trading with a wallet-exchange like Coinbase.
And remember, there are countless other options for setting up wallets and trading currency. Most will, however, pair with a Coinbase account (making it a logical place to start).
NOTE: Once you have Coinbase down, try moving onto Coinbase Pro. It’s, in overly simple terms, like a better version of Coinbase with lower fees. Coinbase operates both platforms, and both use the same logins. Coinbase Pro is the preferred exchange of many Bitcoin traders in the U.S. It caters to both pros and novices. After you master that, then consider exchanges like Bittrex and Binance.